Polar patterns of microphones are a representation of a microphone’s sensitivity to the sound relative to the angle or direction from which it receives the sound. In simpler words, a polar pattern decides how well the microphone will hear the sound from various directions. This is known as the directionality of a microphone, and different microphones have different polar patterns depending on the application.
The challenge for sound engineers is to select the right polar pattern microphone for a given application and use the proper technique to capture the desired sound and reject any unwanted noise or feedback. Omnidirectional, unidirectional and bidirectional are the three top types….